Recipe for North Staffordshire Oatcake

147

Sent in by: John Harrison

Ingredients

  • 225g fine oatmeal
  • 225g wholewheat or plain flour
  • 1tsp salt
  • 15g yeast
  • 450ml warm milk
  • 450ml warm water
  • 1tsp sugar

Method

  1. Mix the water and milk together.
  2. Mix the salt to the flour and oatmeal in a large bowl.
  3. Dissolve the yeast with a little warm liquid and add the sugar. Allow the mixture to become frothy.
  4. Mix the dry ingredients with the yeast liquid to make a batter adding the remainder of the warm liquid.
  5. Cover the batter with a clean cloth and leave in a warm place for about an hour.
  6. Pour out enough batter on a well-greased griddle to make an oatcake of about 22cm. The surface will be covered in holes as it cooks.
  7. Flip the oatcake after 2-3 minutes when the top side has a dry appearance and the underneath is a golden brown colour and cook for another 2-3 minutes.

Notes:

TIP:

Try to use the heaviest frying pan available as this will keep the heat constant which is best for making oatcakes. Great served with fried bacon, mushrooms and cheese as a savoury snack or with butter and jam as a sweet treat.

Oatcakes can be frozen and a microwave is the ideal method of defrosting and reheating them.

History, Secrets and Health

I heard that soldiers returning from India in days gone by tried to duplicate the chapattis they had enjoyed but using local ingredients and the North Staffordshire Oatcake was born.

The exact recipe varies between oatcake shops and was for many years a closely guarded secret. There would be an oatcake shop on nearly every street corner years ago. Not just selling the oatcakes but also hot filled oatcakes. This was fast food prior to the Golden Arches and supersize me.

Being very much a regional dish – indeed, less than a county – oatcakes were always missed by ex-pats from the Potteries. There used to be a hotel in Leamington Spa that sent someone up to Stoke-on-Trent at the crack of dawn on a Sunday morning to get supplies.

Being made with oatmeal, they are actually quite high in fibre but filling with melted cheese and fried bacon may reduce the health benefits somewhat.

Favourite

My favourite is to place under the grill with thin slices of cheese on. When bubbling, add a generous amount of Branston pickle and roll up.

You can buy North Staffordshire oatcakes from some of the major supermarkets in the UK. For those poor souls in far off lands, this is how to make them,

Filed under All Recipes, Members Recipes by  #

Pings on Recipe for North Staffordshire Oatcake

Comments on Recipe for North Staffordshire Oatcake Leave a Comment

ALISON @ 6:25 pm #

I CUT THIS RECIPE OUT OF THE SENTINEL WHEN IT WAS PRINTED SOME YEARS AGO BUT, PIECES OF PAPER GO ASTRAY. I HAVE MADE THE OATCAKES AND IF I SAY SO MYSELF THEY ARE EXTREMELY TASTY. I EVEN GOT ORDERS FROM FAMILY MEMBERS. THANKS FOR PUTTING THE RECIPE ONLINE SO I CAN CONTINUE MAKING THEM.

John @ 10:39 pm #

Glad you found it useful – I didn't know it was in the Sentinel, it was posted to me when we were out of the country and couldn't find the Potteries answer to haute cuisine.

Howard Taylor @ 7:52 pm #

Thanks Mr Harrison…

I love them, my father lived there and he loved them. This is the third time I have used your recipe and it works well. Thanks!

Howard

John @ 8:13 pm #

Food of the gods! Glad you're enjoying them. For years the recipe was secret but now we can enjoy them everywhere. I'm amazed they've not become popular outside of north Staffs. We've had visitors from abroad and they've really taken to them. I don't think they were just being polite.

Peter @ 3:30 am #

Thanks for the recipe! I live in Brazil and have always enjoyed oatcakes when I grew up in Shropshire. We have started making them here using the recipe you have provided. We have a sunday school and take large batches of Oatcakes for the children, we have about 39 children come along to the Sunday School…..even some mothers and grandparents come along and sit in the Sunday school and get an oatcake. Last sunday we saw a small child showing signs of malnutrition with a large distended stomach…It's difficult to believe with Brazil being relatively wealthy this should be so, but the oatcakes at least go someway to helping children like these. Thankyou so much for letting us have the recipe!

claudia van rijsewijk @ 12:05 am #

Thanks ever so much!! My boyfriend is from stoke and missed his oatcakes. So im in the kitchen making them about twice a week now! Also a big thanks fom my boyfriend.
An John, im dutch and love oatcakes with cheese and hp sauce. they can get me out of bed for them. But then again i've lived in England and got used to the taste of English food.

John @ 1:20 am #

I'm old enough to be absolutely amazed at getting posts from Brazil and Holland! Oatcakes are, like many of the best dishes, 'peasant' food. Cheap, filling and easy to cook. I've never understood how come everyone in the UK at least isn't addicted to them. Food of the gods!

Alex JB @ 4:53 pm #

Hi, Many thanks for posting this, I'm on my own in the USA for 6 months and being a Hanley boy, miss my oatcakes!
My local shops recipie was a closely guarded secret so only now I can try to re-create north stafs in northern Illinois.

John @ 8:11 pm #

Hi Alex – maybe you'll end up with a chain of oatcake shops across the USA! But can you get Cheshire cheese and Branston?

Joan @ 12:29 pm #

Hi thanks for this recipe,
we live in Tenerife, so we miss our oatcakes!!!
great with chesse, bacon, sausages, tomatoes, eggs!!!
the list goes on! now got to find the ingredients!!
will make them as soon as I can
cheers J & K

Mark @ 6:58 am #

The oatcake is also alive and kicking in Perth, Western Australia. I can't live without my oatcakes so have been making them here downunder for 13 yrs since i moved here.
The aussies love them too.

MB

Sam Gamalath @ 12:13 pm #

I love them. Used to buy them at local Sainsbury's a few years ago, but they no longer stock them… a shame!
SG

Natalie @ 8:25 pm #

Hi there – I'm very happy to have found this recipe as I'm an ex Stokie now living in Bulgaria!

Can you tell me is it fresh yeast that you need to use or is dried ok?

Can't wait to be making me own oatcakes as I have a fridge full of imported cheese and branston that just isn't the same on toast!
Nat x

Lindsay @ 12:53 am #

Hey there, I'm an ex Stokie now living in down under Melbourne AUS i miss my oatcakes we used to get really good ones from the Haymarket in Tunstall many moons ago, dad got the recipe from the shop owner when he went back for a holiday and made them out here up until he passed away, where abouts in SOT did u live? Lindsay

Rob @ 5:30 pm #

Many thanks for the recipe,
Interested to hear about the Leamington Spa Hotel sending out for supplies. Can't get them here now. I moved down to the Leamington Spa area twelve years ago and I usually get supplies every now and again when I visit family in Eccleshall. Managed to convert everyone who have sampled them from me and I will now try my hand at making some.
Kind regards
Rob

Tom @ 12:30 pm #

Thanks for this – goes without saying you can't get oatcakes in Japan (i'm still yet to find baked beans or gravy!) but not for long!!! I'm going to try the recipe tonight.

Would be interesting to see if anyone has tried introducing oatcakes back to India?

B.Pennington @ 2:32 pm #

Thanks for your recipe ,my late husband was a baker and we have an aga cooker so oatcakes were made quite often ,however since he passed away I only make then now and then ,thanks for the recipe and method ,the batch is rising as I type so must go and get busy, all the best from Derbyshire.
I still prefer the Staffordshire recipe so here's to Happy Oatcaking,
yours B,Pennington

Dee @ 10:41 pm #

My Gran used to make Staffordshire oatckes for me when I was a child, growing up in Newcastle under Lyme.
What a treat to find this recipe,now I can make them for my Southern boyfriend whom up till yet,has never had the pleasure!

steve @ 10:42 pm #

First tasted them 3 yrs ago when working in Stoke. Got them from a small shop near the Royal Doulton factory I think absolutely gorgeous. Surprised they haven't become more widespread.Wish someone would start selling them in Liverpool

Bill Hewitt @ 1:26 pm #

Waitrose still sell them, as do Booths. Booths also sell Lancashire oatcakes, but I prefer the Staffs ones.
Just made a batch from the above recipe and was pleased with the results. I only had medium oatmeal though. It didn't seem to be a problem.

adrian powell @ 11:43 am #

i used this recipe. and made some oatcakes. and what they were really lovely. the only problem i had was to get hold of the oatmeal. and my father managed to get some from Morrison's. as i couldn't get it from tesco or asda. so used the morn flake oatmeal. these oatcakes are really tasty. and i will continue to make them for my family. my 2 brothers who are living in cork Ireland. asked me to send them some over. so i will send them some oatcakes over.

john holmes @ 6:57 am #

Hi from Thailand,just heard a breakfast bar in Pattaya is making them and they look lovely on the pics provided to the site.The stokie guy is a chef at the restaraunt
as they say

stokies here stokies there

Mick Williamson @ 4:11 pm #

My Grandy and Grandma lived just outside Stoke in Draycott le Moors… Oatcakes are a way of life in those parts. I worked for a while in Cardiff and my Pals from Stoke used to bring them down for my family. I can say hand on heart they are the nicest breakfast known to man!! Thanks for the recipe, I'm out in Germany now and I am just about to make some.

Silmon Mary @ 9:41 am #

Thanks for the recipe. I saw a letter in the Guardian on Saturday about oatcakes and looked up for a recipe. It is wonderful. I have slightly changed it by adding oatbran for a colestrol problem. The result is slight heavier but will do the trick for me. Thanks again. I was tired of eating muffins. Mary

Richard @ 1:20 pm #

Thanks for this! I was recently back in Staffordshire and couldn't wait to eat oatcakes. Needless to say, I can't get them in Tokyo, but I'll be trying your recipe this weekend.

Alan Wharton @ 3:44 pm #

Hi just thought id say thanks, this recipe will be going to bendorm in Nov. I'm from Wigan but live in St Annes on sea and I am fortunate enough to have a brill mate in Burslem who puts up with and puts us up an always gets oatcakes for me at 8-30am Sun Thanks to Paul and Mandy

Annie Palfrey @ 2:15 am #

I saw them on Rick Stein programme they look wonderful so now I will be making them in Brisbane OZ thankyou …

James Ellis @ 12:36 pm #

I'm a Leek boy living in Brisbane. Looking forward to making some Oatcakes
Thanks.

Lea @ 4:17 pm #

I am so pleased to finally have this recipe….. I remember how amazed and in awe I was of the oatcake when I 1st visited Stafford as a child…. I will be making these as soon as I ytrack down some oatmeal here in deepest darkest Africa!

Debbie Kenyon @ 7:01 pm #

Having just visited Chatsworth Farm shop and bought some delicious, albeit expensive oatcakes, "I bet we could make these" lead to googling 'recipes for oatcakes'. And so I have discovered your website and it is wonderful! I am the Healthy Eating advisor for Lincs Healthy schools and I have a list of useful websites which I give out to schools who are interested in introducing food into their school, whether it is via the curriculum or an after school cook club. Your website is definately going to be addedto the list!

Sue @ 3:39 pm #

I was very pleased to find this recipe. I am a Birmingham girl and have been buying these oatcakes from my local Tesco. Problem is, Tesco's ordering system is very unreliable and I have been unable to buy them for some weeks. I shall try making my own instead!

Martin @ 5:22 am #

Thank you for posting this recipe, I am originally for Stoke on Trent and have been living in Vancouver Canada for the past 9 years.

Just tried the recipe and it was a little slice of heaven.

Thanks Again

John Higgs X Burslem @ 10:57 pm #

When you put the liquid onto the cooking area use the base of the ladle to push the liquid out as far as it will go before setting. This is important to get a thin product. just pouring it on and then letting it cook will produce a cake that could be too thick to roll easily, just tried some of Tesco Staffordshire Oatcakes, far too thick and also very small.
I use an ultra hot chilli beef mix to roll in mine also a beefy bolognaise mix(when I have run out of Bacon that is).

Barry @ 12:39 pm #

North Cheshire : Sainsburys sell them in this area and we love them ! None of our recipe books mention them, so a quick Google and here you are ! Top of the list and rightly so. Our thanks for your recipe.

Chris Brayford @ 8:22 pm #

Dubai calling, my whole family (apart from me funnily enough) were born in the Stoke area. My Mum and Dad actually met whilst both working on The Sentinel. A career move for Dad relocated us to Manchester (Sale) but we regularly visited relatives in Stoke and stocked up. I tried making my own from an internet recipe but I wasn't 100% happy so I sent away (internet) for a mixture which worked well (despite the fact that it was mis-mailed to Vncouver, Canada) – Stoke-Vancouver-Dubai ! ! I will try your recipe next weekend and thanks.

Thomas @ 8:00 am #

The recipe as shown here is the one I have used at home for a couple of years here in Australia, and the oatcakes certainly are delicious. However, I went to North Staffordshire for the first time in my life in September 2009, and patronized a great little oatcake shop in Leek a couple of times. For some reason, the oatcakes I bought there were flatter than the ones I make, indicating that their batter is much thinner than mine, and if I made my oatcakes with a diameter of 22cm, that would be a day's food. Has anyone any explanation of why my mix seems to be so much thicker than the actual Staffs batter? Oatcakes are sensational with just about anything. We tend to have them wrapped around a banana or warm with honey drizzled over. They are especially good with vegemite, but only we Aussies would know about that!

gilbert allen @ 9:18 pm #

just made my first batch, delicious, so simple

Roe Holcombe @ 11:53 am #

Thanks for posting your recipe. My husband used to go apple picking up in Stoke when he was a teenager (he's now retired) and was telling me stories of devouring what he only knew as "oatcakes" – now I can surprise him with your recipe! We live in Portugal now but are about to return for Christmas in the UK so Oatmeal is on the shopping list! Happy baking!

pat. @ 3:55 pm #

thank you for this recipe, we are from stoke but we live in Bulgaria.
ive found a supermarket here that sells Blakemans sausages….i just needed the oatcakes to go with them.
thanks again.

Caron @ 2:46 pm #

Excellant thanks so much! We live in Brisbane but are back in Staffs for Christmas with the family. My sister always stocks up her freezer with oatcakes for when we visit and we gorge on them but now we can make our own anytime. You've made an ex-pat very happy!

karen @ 9:04 am #

Have just made oatcakes for the first time using porridge oats blitzed in the food processor and easy blend dried yeast. The results were fantastic and they were so simple to make. I'll never buy them again!

codhead @ 11:28 am #

Hi, rather than officers returning from India, I think you'll find the history of the North Staffordshire oatcake goes a lot further than that. They are supposedly a product of necessity, developed during the Jacobite rising of 1745. A bunch of Jacobites had become trapped around the Newcastle under Lyme area and as supplies (of their main staple, oatmeal), started to run low, they needed to eke them out. So rather than porridge, they added more water to make a batter and the oatcake was born

David @ 8:38 pm #

I am a South African and was introduced to these in 1999 by my wife's cousin in Cheadle whilst visiting the UK. The shop owner refused to give me the recipe as we lived "too close" and would be competition. I have tried a few recipes from the net but this one is tops.
We will eat them again tonight!

Nick @ 6:31 am #

Hi!
I was born in Tunstall and grew up in SOT, until I left for London in the early seventies, after a great education at Stanfields Technical High School on High Lane.

I have been fortunate to have lived and worked in Europe, the U.S. Central America and the Caribbean, and have lived in Canada since the mid eighties. I live on a medicinal herb farm in Ontario with my wife and daughter.

Why all the history? Well during all that time I never forgot my roots and education in SOT. When I was a teenager, a friend of mine lived in an Oatcake store in Cobridge, and I got to see and participate in all the process (Pikelets anyone?). My brothers and sister and I grew up on Oatcakes and fish and chips (it was what we could afford). I often mentioned Oatcakes to my Canadian wife and daughter, and filled them in on their history as a food. Before I left SOT, some friends and I ran a vegetarian cafe at Keele University (adjacent the uni bar!) and 80% of the food items served were Oatcake based. We even had Friday night Oatcake eating contests (Oatcakes and melted cheese). I think the record was either 17 or 23 Oatcakes!

Thanks for the great recipe… my Canadian family and friends LOVE Staffordshire Oatcakes, and would never have heard of them or tasted them, but for my SOT youth and your perfect recipe. Now if only I could get "proper" Cheshire cheese!

Heather @ 1:37 pm #

Staffordshire oatcakes are not a modern invention by soldiers, although I see the resemblance to chipatis, they are in fact hundreds of years old, a staple that could not be eaten in summer months because they soured and overfermented. Aren't we lucky to have fridges. Great recipe, works slightly better than another I had. My daughter loves them with peanut butter, I'm a houmous and rocket girl myself.

Ava @ 7:15 pm #

Oatcakes and I met while on a recent visit with friends in Staffordshire. Being a fan of quesedillas (torillas and cheese) I took to oatcakes like a duck to, er, oatcakes! Thanks for printing this recipe so that I can continue my love affair with Staffs cooking!

Christian @ 11:51 am #

Ive been living in mallorca for 17 years and theres 2 things i miss about home Oatcakes and mince burgers from terrys…..love to all back home .thanx for the recipe john. ps if anyone can pop in to terrys at the potteries center and ask him for his mince burger recipe that would be nice. over and out

Rhianon Jones @ 9:46 pm #

Hi just found your site and am well chuffed hubby is from SOT and does bring oatcakes home for us when he manages to get to the football but with 2 daughters a son and granddaughter they don"t last long at all so will be definitely trying your recipe THANKS a welshie

Dean @ 1:23 pm #

I lived in Stoke for 6 years before moving to Korea. I have just discovered a source of oatmeal here, and am now very keen to give this a go. I wonder what the Koreans will think of Stokie Oatcakes for breakfast? It'll make a change from rice and seaweed soup!

Steve @ 8:30 pm #

Be very careful with oatcakes I have recently found them in 2 months I have undone my weight loss efforts of last summer and clapped on 1 stone through one bacon cheese and tomato oatcake as a Friday treat at work and 2 of the same on Saturday and Sundays. They are very delicious had to take to exercise now to enjoy this delicacy……simple peasant food at it's best. Michelin star restaurants why do you think Michelin have a tyre plant in Stoke!

Jacky Hall @ 9:12 pm #

When I was little, we, mum,dad and 3 kids walked 2 and a half miles to church on an empty stomach every sunday for the 8.15 am Mass at Bucknall. On the way there we passed an oatcake shop opposite Newhouse Road, making oatcakes and the aroma drove us mad with hunger. On the walk back again (no car, no buses) we bought those freshly done oatcakes for our breakfasts and it was eleven o'clock before we got to eat that delicous meal of oatcakes, bacon, egg, tomato! I can't begin to tell you what a feast it was!
This would be in the 1950's.
I still eat oatcakes on a regular basis and now , thanks to your recipe, I am about to make my own! Thanks John! You are a gem!

Paul Owen ex Burslem @ 2:22 pm #

I'm an ex-Burslem lad now living in Virginia, USA. A friend just sent me this recipe as I'm a die hard oatcaker. High Lane Oatcakes were the best. I even got my Mother to bring a batch with her on the last trip over. Fortunatley there is a place called World Market where you can by HP Sauce (amongst other imported English foods) and you can get Heinz Beans from Harris Teeter :) I will be trying this out asap THANKS !

daniel @ 3:39 pm #

ooooh yummy this is one of my favourite snacks but i lost my old recipe so thankyou for putting this on

aggh!Tea! @ 2:50 pm #

Staffy oatcakes are one of the main things I missed once moving to Australia*. Best thing you can do with them is get some asparagus and Cheshire cheese. Heat a grill and crumble the cheese into small lumps. Boil the asparagus for 2/3 minutes and heat (NOT TOAST) the oatcakes on one side (pref the side the holes!)

Remove the oatcakes from the grill pan – place 2 spears of asparagus in the middle and cover with Cheshire Cheese, wack back under the grill until the cheese is melted….. roll up the oatcake and eat!

*the other is Vimto!

arthur dobson @ 7:46 am #

many thanks for the recipe, my wife and i are now living in Thailand, and one of the things we miss from back home are oat cakes , we now make them regularly with your recipe. they are a great hit with all our friends over here .. as a expat stokie i must say the recipe is bang on authentic thanks for passing it on Arthur..

Carly D. @ 1:40 pm #

Thanks for the recipe. I make oatcakes slightly differently, but this recipe is just as good.
I was born in Hanley and studied both food preparation and food history. I did find that oatcakes were reportedly brought to Britain and the Scottish boarders by the Romans who were particularly efficient at making their supplies go as far as possible and keep their troops fed.
I've seen recipes where they made oatcakes stuffed with dates, herbs, honey etc.
Whatever you put with them – enjoy!

Maribelle @ 3:15 pm #

Thanks to my bestfriend who moved from London to Stoke-on-Trent, I've had the pleasure of oatcakes every time i went to visit her, the last one dating last march. Now thanks to this post, I don't have to cross the channel to have my next serving; now I can enjoy the taste of Stoke right here in Antwerp, Belgium. What's more, my hubby and kids love it too. Thanks John.

Harry @ 4:01 pm #

I like oatcakes a lot! yum
thankyou for the helpful tips and the informative history of oatcakes.

all the best
an oatcake fan

Laura G @ 2:35 pm #

In response to Jacky Hall-Hi, I live in Bucknall and just thought you would like to know that the oatcake shop you describe on Werrington Road, opposite new house, is still here! And a very much loved shop, despite there now being a chinese, chippy, and co op store, the oatcake shop is still the one I visit most.
*I guess before I found this website I didnt realise how lucky I am to enjoy its simple delights on a regular basis. Glad that a recipe allows you the same :) . This recipe is brill, great for when the shop is closed and I need my oatcake fix! Also gives me a sense of pride that I'm from Staffordshire, and can make Staffordshire oatcakes! Thanks so much :)

john holmes @ 9:01 am #

Living in Thailand and miss my oatcakes,but had a stroke of luck.Met a stokie guy over heere and his mum and dad live with him too.He is making oatcakes from home and they are beautiful.Now he is making cheese and a cheesey oatcake nearly every day now.

Jane Lovegrove @ 6:45 pm #

Thanks for showing the recipe for Staffordshire oatcakes. These were a family favourite for myself and brother as we grew up, my favourite way of serving was with butter + jam or golden syrup, thanks again.

Jo @ 1:45 pm #

Just eaten my first ever Staffordshire oatcake :D I opted for maple syrup and it was delish – when I've got room for another, and going to try crispy bacon and cheese.

My only complaint is that despite often making bread and having extensive baking experience with yeast, the blonde in me took over and it never occurred to me that the batter would more than double in size so there was a rather large mess in my kitchen lol!

For the person who said they couldn't get hold of oatmeal, I just stuck some rolled oats in my blender – worked a charm :D

Thanks a lot – absolutely delicious!!!

Matt Burke @ 10:44 am #

Don't forget it's Oatcake day this Sunday, 8th August 2010

Sandra Smith @ 10:51 pm #

I buy Staffordshire oatcakes from my local Sainsburys every week (it's not breakfast without one) , but will give the recipe a go.

Jason Lockley @ 9:59 am #

Loved me oatcakes when I lived in Stoke but sadly theres nothing that come near to them in Turkey, so thanks for the recipe shall be having a proper breakfast at last.

Edward Swann @ 10:24 am #

Travel to northern india on a semi regular basis. Himalchal and Rajisthan.

They do make an oaty version of some of the breads but it depends on the region and what is the staple grown grain.

Personaly i love roti while i am out there, paticulaly butter roti, and wondered if there was a way of making an oaty roti?

As for taking oatcakes back to Inida – maybe next time…. They certainly have the street and home sellers that used to be the way oatcakes were bought in stoke – in fact i'd guess you'd be able to find someone selling them if you went to the right area of India.

Janet From Cheltenham @ 1:51 pm #

Made these years ago and loved them. Thank you for the recipe. Have been looking for it for ages.

Mike @ 6:19 pm #

I'm an expatriate potter (Wolstanton) living in Canada (since 1962)
and miss the oatcakes very much.
I've got my son and his family eating them, my grand children love them.

Keep up the good work.

Phil @ 3:16 pm #

Hi
Want to make these myself could you tell me where you get your fine oatmeal and wholewheat flour from.
Thanks

Alan Longbottom @ 6:28 pm #

Brilliant . I live in Hull and have a recipe from a great Staffy lady who runs the cattery where our pussies go on holiday . Will try this one though . Will BLITZ the blend and see what happens . Keep up the good work >
Regs . Al

Nicola @ 10:00 am #

Hi I live in Austria now but was brought up in Cheshire. I have been telling my husband for ages about oatcakes now I can make them for him.

Joceline Brooke-Hamilton @ 6:58 pm #

Oh, thank you Val and John, what a lovely surprise! My mother grew up in Staffordshire and she used to make them for Sunday tea when I was a child. I'm off work waiting for an operation, but now I'm half-way through making some oatcakes, and the smell is already cheering me up fabulously. When I get back to normal, I'm planning to carry on making them. Thanks so much for making it possible!

Jeanne @ 7:55 pm #

Thanks for posting the recipe! Bought some of these about 8 or 9 years ago in London @ Neal's Yard Dairy. Loved them and craving them since. Nothing quite like them here in Seattle.

John Morrall @ 10:23 am #

Hi – From Stoke, but have now lived in Greece for the past seven years. Can't get oatmeal as such, but found that ordinary oats are available – just put them in a food processor & whirr down into meal… Works fine, as does your recipe – Thanks !

joyce walters @ 6:54 am #

I simply can't believe just how popular these oatcakes are! Back in UK this summer, only place I could buy them was at a market in Wells in Somerset. Back in Tasmania (OZ) now & having to make my own again, brain numbs up converting fresh yeast to dry tho! Any tips? Thanks

paul @ 12:15 am #

Are you still in the U/S, I am in Lake Geneva Wisconsin, but from Leek Road, Hanley.

Tuscany @ 2:43 pm #

Oatcakes filled with sausage and cheese or bacon and cheese are my fave's. Cooked under the grill NEVER in a microwave.
I always use 2 cheese's mature chedder and cheshire. Mmmmm the best.

dawn @ 5:37 am #

from potteries area but now living in Australia – this recipe is a Godsend – thank you so very much.

brian cotterill @ 10:13 pm #

Born in Tean many years ago, brought up on oatcakes and butter hot or cold and rolled. Seem to remember after we moved to Coventry an old man used to bring the family 3 dozen every Saturday morning before returning to Leamington. Could this be the same supplier to the Leamington Hotel – for the life of me can't remember his name but if you're still around fond memories abound. Also remember driving to Stoke in the early hours of a Saturday morning in the late fifties early sixties just to get some of the first ones made. Pancakes, chipattis you can keep the lot, there's only one food of the gods a staffordshire Oatcake.
Brian

Jim @ 12:11 am #

As a Stokie I love my oatcakes, and always will, however, would you believe, I am unable to find a decent oatcake in Stafford!!
I can get a certain mass produced brand but refuse to buy them due to their lack of quality.
Consequently I have endured many, regular trips to Stoke on the bus.
No need to do that now though because I can make my own!
Big, big thanks for the recipe.

trevor fenton @ 3:29 am #

Living 200 ks south of Perth, Western Australia, 35 years now. I started making oatcakes 30 years ago. same recipe, it's a good one. I have converted a lot of aussies to them, not one bad comment. Some of you ask about stone ground oats. Make your own. Just buy rolled oats, put them in your blender. You can have them as rough or smooth as you want. Also if your batter gets to thick only thin out with warm milk, never water. So well done guys, keep them oatcakes rolling. Re Trevor Fenton 17 2 2011 ps I came from Longton.

Nathan @ 6:20 am #

Having lived in Staffordshire for a couple of years, oatcakes are our favourite brunch! Thanks for sharing the love!

My husband and I have lived in Spain for the last 6 years, and are now regularly selling oatcakes on four local markets, we make them freshly and they are being enjoyed now by many different nationalities, who are filling them with many various ingredients, the Spanish particularly seem to like them, once sampled, about 80% buy them.

Vampyra @ 8:11 pm #

woohoo….I'm Stafford born and bred but now living in Burnley…..I've just read your post and being a lover of Staffordshire Oatcakes I'm going to give your recipe a try so many many thanks for posting. I have looked down the posts here and see that your Staffy Oatcakes are going round the world. How amazing is that. Well done to you for promoting our lovely County. I miss Stafford and I miss the oatcakes…Tescos/Sainsbury's are a poor substitute for the real thing. oh, and yes….its STAFFORDSHIRE i.e. Stoke…oatcakes that are the original and best and not er Derbyshire!!! lol *waits for the flack* hehe

Delighted to see your recipe for Staffs oatcakes and to read all the comments from people who love them. I sent off for several dozen last year, but couldn't eat them as they smelt and tasted of bicarbonate of soda. Thank goodness your recipe is authentic. The dreadful bicarb recipe was given to the Hairy Bikers, and they in turn gave out that recipe.

Thank you very much, I can now make my own. (as I live too far from the Potteries)

Miriam @ 11:51 pm #

I can't wait to try and make these! My Dad is from Stoke but has been in NZ for 30+ years now. When I went to the UK and met my family there, my cousin cooked up oatcakes with bacon, melted cheese and mushrooms. They were delicious! I can't wait to make them for my family here!

Garry hobson @ 10:46 am #

Was born in Tunstall, grew up in Fegg Hayes, went to Hanley High School and did my electrical apprenticeship on the Potteries. Loved my Wrights pies and Oatcakes. My Dad (or I when I was >12 or so) used to walk down to the local 'Oatcake Shop' in Fegg Hayes on a Sunday morning. Have lived in Canada for the last 34 years (have worked from Southern Canada to the Arctic and in every province from East to West). My wife is Canadian and is a fabulous cook, 20 years ago she made me 'steak and kidney pudding' but couldn't get over the 'suet' in he recipe. My sister bought oatcakes for me about 5 years ago on a visit but my 'Canuck Missus' is convinced thay are bad for me 'it's bleedin' oats…how bad can it be' Thanks for the recipe im going to get my 'Missus' to make them for me.

I was born in Longton, Stoke-on-Trent in 1944 at the end of the war.
We really enjoyed the oatcakes from the local oatcake shop also they sold picklets. We would smell them cooking and relish them for breakfast some Sunday mornings. I went to live in Australia in 1968 and went back to visit in 2003 and there is no sign of oatcake shops now. Have been wanting to find the recipe…thanks for sharing. Planning to share with my kids on Saturday morning with eggs and bacon. mmmmm

@trevor fenton: Hi Trevor…I am also from Longton and living in Australia

@dawn: Hi I am from Longton and now live in Australia. Great connecting with people from way back.

@Jacky Hall: Wow…brings back memories. I lived in Bentilee from when I was 8 years old. That would have been in 1952. I now live in Australia and saw this website and recipe for Staffordshire Oatcakes…. I am going to make then this Saturday to eat with my daughter and granchildren.

jan king @ 12:15 am #

Hi I live in New Zealand. My mum and Dad came from the potteries as they used to call it. We lived in Scarborough and my Auntie used to post us oatcakes once a week. My Mum managed to get hold of the recipe from a great Aunt who used to go round the housing estates in Stoke selling oatcakes from a cart. So we could then save on postage. That must be 60 years ago. I have continued to make oatcakes over the years and given the recipe to lots of greatful people. Been reading all the feedback and I can never understand how Oaties have never made the world food scene, but then we all know they're priceless.
regards jan king

Carl Pender @ 11:49 am #

I thought these wouldn't be as good as the ones in Burslem – but was wrong – they're great! Now I only need them to transport PVFC down south and I'm a happy man.

ERIC CLUTTON @ 3:54 am #

I live in Tennessee and had quite a search for fine grain oatmeal flour. Finally discovered it being sold as BABY FOOD !

Christine U. Lineham @ 5:01 pm #

I loved the taste of oatcakes which I tried for the first time at a market in La Marina on the Costa Blanca. The chap said that they were made wholly of oats so I bought some for my sister who is a celiac and cannot take any wheat or gluten. I was so disappointed to see that the oats are combined with wheat flour and yeast which she is not allowed. How about using only the fine oat flour and missing out the other ingredients?????

john whyte @ 1:13 pm #

Just made 1st batch to your recipe, not had oatcakes for 10years. My late mother was a Stokie and introduced us to them early in life, now my oldest daughter loves them. By the way the recipe is very good, thank you.
John from Scotland.
ps support an oatcake day

Vanessa van der Kramer @ 6:55 pm #

I made these as a savoury meal and added chopped chives to the mixture and served with a mixed green salad on the side to add some variety and it was fantastic. Have also made it with finely chopped spring onions in the mixture and it was delicious.

Maureen @ 10:49 pm #

@ALISON: To all you oatcake lovers out there, I missed them too, when I moved to Manchester and my mum now lives in Lytham St. Annes. The good news is that Sainsbury's, St Annes sells them, as does Booths (a Lancashire supermarket chain.) I have also seen them occasionally in Tesco stores, Greater Manchester and Morrison's, ditto. They are the genuine article, obviously being delivered regularly, usually found in the bread aisle. Don't slave over a hot griddle; pester your supermarket manager to stock them! Tip if you're dieting: try grilling them with a quick spray of Frylight to stop them drying out, or use low fat cheese.

Derek Brookes @ 12:41 pm #

thanks for the recipe, just in the process of making some in sunny Znojmo in the Czech republic

Alex @ 2:13 pm #

@Christine U. Lineham:
my girlfriend can't eat wheat or milk, and I am constantly on the look out for new alternatives to bread, wraps etc that don't taste like the cardboard found in the "free from" sections of the supermarket. I gave this recipe a whirl, swapping plain flour for gluten free flour, and milk for rice milk, and they turned out fantastic! I needed a little extra liquid in the mix, plus a bit longer on the griddle, but they weren't far off the real thing!

mary whitehurst @ 2:59 pm #

Cheers for the recipe, we in Scotland love them, all my family can't wait to taste them.

Anna Mason @ 12:27 am #

I'm from the Manchester area, but now live in Vancouver, Canada. There are two things I crave: The Sunday Times and Staffordshire Oat Cakes. As soon as I land in Manchester, I rush over to the Tesco in Stalybridge and stock up on SOC. I slather them with butter and honey, cut them into four and fold each one over. Mmmmmm, comfort food!!!!

When I eat one (often two) for breakfast, I am full for most of the day!
What is it that makes them so moorish?
I make sure that I pack as much as my luggage holds on my way back to Vancouver
Thank you for the recipe; will try them asap.

macc lad @ 3:12 pm #

Fantastic recipe. Thank you brought back lots of fond memories of Saturday mornings. Now get to eat again in Santander Northern Spain. My ozzie girlfriend just tried them with bacon and cheddar cheese and loved them.

Johnboy @ 9:10 am #

I live in Germany but originally come from Burslem,over the years I´ve tried and tried but could never get oatcakes right. Then I bought the right pan, a heavy bottomed Crepe Pan and with this recipe I've managed to master it after two goes. As the Mercians formerly the Staffords are stationed here and I play darts with a couple of them, I now make oatcakes for my mates on a regular basis and they reckon they are second to none.
With a statement like that I must be doing it right, only thing is the pan is 26 cm which makes them very large. Still bigger the better where oatcakes are concerned.

Patricia byers @ 10:24 pm #

Nice one I love stoke oatcakes and can't wait to have a crack at them myself sorry but don't enjoy the supermarket ones

Kelvin Burke @ 5:22 am #

Not a 'real' Potter?? I was born and bred in N-U-L too (Clayton), and I certainly class meself as a Potter…..been in Oz since 1972, and still miss oatcakes…..I'll try the recipe asap

Kelvin Burke @ 5:25 am #

@Jacky Hall:

I used to go out with a Jacki (Jackie/Jacqui) Hall many years ago…..she lived in Clayton near the Newcastle Rugby Club ground….it's not YOU, is it??

Alice @ 1:33 pm #

@Peter:

I'm a UK journalist writing a feature on Staffordshire Oatcakes and would love to hear from ex-pats who are fond of the oatcakes, have memories of eating them when they lived in Stoke. How do you do now get your oatcake 'kick'!? Do you import them?

I'd be most grateful if you can email me at alice@wonderlandfreelance.co.uk with your thoughts. My deadline is Monday.

Alice

Patrick @ 2:31 am #

They are such a treat.There is nothing that beats the smell of fresh oatcakes. I remember getting up early every Sunday and queing for fresh oatcakes from the shop down the road. Then coming home to have them with our bacon and eggs after going to mass at the Sacred Heart Tunstall.

Rich @ 12:09 pm #

So I am in Budapest right now, and was in a restaurant talking to my girlfriend about oatcakes (as I've been in Burslem two years or so). The Hungarian waiter overheard me mention oatcakes and asked me for the recipe as he was working in Hanley for a year. Haha. I said I have no idea, but that's how I have found this site! Expect the Hungarians to be eating oatcakes very soon when I give him this link.

beverley @ 6:35 am #

I made these once and they worked perfectly but now I am having real issues with them. The batter does not rise even when I follow the recipe exactly and, when I try to cook them, they just stick and go gooey. I am using fine oatmeal and dried active yeast. Thought that I was using too much liquid to mix with yeast but have tried different variations and it still doesn't work. Please help, we live in NZ and are not able to buy them here.

Kenny @ 11:22 pm #

@beverley:
I hope these observations, noted since my first few failed attempts, will give you something to consider, and maybe you can avoid another “gooey mess”
My initial attempts all failed because I was using a thin aluminium pan which cooled the mix unevenly as it was poured, creating hot and cold spots – cooking temperatures were all over the place. Even where parts of the underside were deep brown, there were still clinging gooey patches that I couldn’t turn over: Changing to an iron “Le Creuset”pan, in the middle of this batter pouring, gave me instant success.
The reason a heavy iron pan is so important is because it’s slow to react to temperature changes, absorbing them and distributing as a common all over heat across the cooking surface, (think of a burger bar hotplate).
Ensure the heat source / hob surface you're using has a diameter big enough to cover the whole area under the cooking surface and allow it to heat right up (I set my electric hob to around mark 3 or 4).
Before pouring the mix, I rub around the pan with a minimal amount of cooking oil or Ghee – (clarified butter, as used in Indian restaurants when making Paratha's), and mop up any excess oil with kitchen roll before pouring in the batter mix.
Another factor I found in reaching the first cooked thru’ turn over point was when using a 23cm diameter pan, that a 150ml cupful of mix was just the right amount to use to give the optimum thickness / cooking time. (BTW use warm milk if you need to thin mixture not water).
John Harrison’s recipe doesn’t specify whether to use full cream milk, however I’ve used the semi-skimmed variety, along with a mix of rolled oats that has been put thru’ a blender with an hour allowed for the dried yeast to do its business.
I also keep the mix warm and whisk in the yeast bubbles between pours, but I don’t know if this is really necessary, I just continue doing what worked for me the first time. Good Luck

Paul @ 1:41 pm #

Must try this recipe. I used to have them when visiting relatives in Congleton and they were always bought locally and I'm sure at the co-op where my sister-in-law used to work.

She did make her own as well.

George Newell @ 5:41 pm #

I lived near Hanley as a child & then Cobridge… Many moons ago.
Now living in Spain & hoping I can get the ingredients to make my own oatcakes & show my wife what I´m talking about!!!

George Newell @ 12:02 pm #

@debbie woodward: Where abouts in Spain??

George Newell @ 11:58 am #

@Nick: I also went to Stanfield Tech!!!

Margaret Callaghan @ 8:01 am #

I am living in Newark, Nottinghamshire, I was born in Bignall End, Audley, Stoke on Trent, I was brought up on Staffordshire oatcakes, and have often thought about them over the years, we ate them with various foods, but, as a child, my favourite treat was oatcake with butter and golden syrup, I am practicing making them, so far yum yum. Thank you for sharing it with us

Ken @ 10:09 am #

@john holmes:

I am at present 22/01/2012 living in Pattaya Thailand.
I would very much appreciate the name and address of the Restaraunt.
Ken
thechairman18

Brian Robson @ 7:42 pm #

As a native of the north east I moved from Newcastle upon Tyne to Newcastle under Lyme when I went to college in the early 70s. I missed the stottie cakes and great fish and chips but was soon hooked on oatcakes. Now in Calgary Alberta and came across this recipe…… ABSOLUTELY FANTASTIC…. as one or two have stated it needs thinning with a little extra milk but they still look and taste as good as those from the oatcake shop in Porthill. I'm sure I will soon have some converts here…. we do have a slight problem…. Canadian bacon and sausage isn't as good!

Brian Robson @ 7:51 pm #

@ERIC CLUTTON:
just grind up Quaker oats

Carol @ 12:30 am #

So excited about this recipe as I really missed them when I moved to Glasgow, my Nanna had a oatcake bakery at the end of the street In Macclesfiled. Since moving to York, Tesco has them occasionally but this is great, thank you.

William @ 9:27 am #

I've just been taken to an Ethiopian restaurant, where the bread served, ijera, reminded me of Staffs oatcakes – far more so than chapatis.. Checking the recipes for both, the methods are similar, although ijera uses sourdough yeasts, and oatcakes brewer's yeast. Perhaps the soldiers had been stationed in the Horn of Africa rather than the Indian subcontinent.

Paul Jenkins @ 12:48 pm #

Thanks for the recipe, already dined the feast of Kings this morning!! Could have done with the recipe when stationed in Hong Kong (or elsewhere) in the 80s. A fellow Sergeants Mess member once had the last of a batch brought over from home, it had a bit of mould but he bellowed, I dont care, took it off and walked down the street sniffing away, mouth watering and apparently, bacon and cheese under the grill awaiting his arrival with a singleton oatcake. Good to see Stokies out and about, we are so very proud to be Potters.

Joy Solomon @ 12:04 am #

I live in Sydney Australia although born in The Potteries and I have an Edwardian, limited edition, china platter entitled Ode to the Staffordshire Oatcake..The Saga of the Sickly Lad – "me father owned an oatcake shop at the bottom of o ar strate, Ay opened up at crack o dawn , cause the folks thee cudna weet…." by Marjorie Peak Milton. I would like to give it to some one who would appreciate it (recipient pays postage and handling).

Yvonne @ 1:06 pm #

We buy them every Sunday freshly made before your very eyes, from Zocco market, near Quesada, Costa Blanca, Spain. Lovely!!

amy @ 8:04 pm #

thanks for the recipe :D IOVE OAT CAKES

Helen @ 8:40 pm #

Husband has been asking me to make these since we moved to Bulgaria a few years ago from Stoke, well he is a Stokie and I am from Newcastle -under-Lyme which apparently doesn't count according to him. I keep telling him I haven't got the right pan but I have no excuse now as he has just posted this to my Facebook timeline. :)
Thanks.

Jenny @ 6:48 pm #

I use my Mum's recipe (a Leek girl born and bred)….

2 cups/mugs MEDIUM oatmeal to 1 cup/mug wholemeal, rye or spelt flour + an ounce of fresh yeast. No need for milk either. MUCH oatier and yummier in my mind. If you want to treat yourself (costs 40 quid!), get a traditional griddle/bakestone from the Aga people. Can also find old ones on such as Ebay.

paul kelsall @ 2:26 pm #

Thought the day would never come that I would be reading a column about oatcakes but I'm so glad I am!!!! We live outside of Philadelphia USA having moved here in 1980. Used to live on Gilman St. Hanley and had the oatcake shop up near the Potters club. Told my wife about them so many times that she asked for them as soon as we sat down to eat on her first trip to my homeland.The guy in London had no idea what she was talking about! Now I will be able to surprise her with my own creation. Many,many thanks for posting this recipe even though I never thought it would be surrendered.

Dawn Clayton @ 4:14 pm #

My mother has just been told to follow a gluten free diet, can we make this with gluten free flour.

Kev Lax @ 7:48 pm #

Also now being made and enjoyed by me, ex-Sheffield lad, and my wife's family. In Keelung Taiwan

John Hellen, Hucknall, Nottingham @ 12:59 am #

You're a life saver!!! For around five months I was able to buy North Staffs Oatcakes from our local Tescos. Then all of a suddenly, the stupid bread products buyer arbitrarily decided to stop ordering them. Despite several protests both from myself and many other customers. All to no avail! Any roads uppards, keep up the good work. Many thanks for the recipe.

george robinson @ 3:11 pm #

I lived in Hanley, Burslem and Kidsgrove in the early 60s and bought them from the shop in Kidsgrove front st, I had them with bacon. I can still taste them so can't wait to make some.

John Anderson @ 10:51 pm #

Thee costna bayt aye lane oatcakes tunsta, fer thee bacon n egg n musheroom chaze n pickle breakfast, bayn a stokie me sen a conner wate fer t wake end t cum kwik enuf.Mmmmmm But im still gonna try this recipe…….

Ron Kinnersley @ 4:16 pm #

Can you please tell me where I can purchase the fine oatmeal in the potteries,I'm a castle old geezer but still like my oatcakes. many thanks.

Alan Steele @ 5:04 pm #

Hey great to see all the oatcake interest. My Family were the first to bake oatcakes at the Foley and our 90 year old recipe is always Medium oatmeal (we think has more flavour) 2-1 flour to oatmeal is fine for medium oatmeal, the salt is a definite but you don't need sugar, the mixture will easily activate the yeast. Milk is not needed at all just water. An hour isn't really enough proving, at least two hours is needed but begins to separate mix after about 8 hours, (this looks horrible like its curdled but you can re-mix it reasonably easily) when you cook use the heaviest pan you have, or flat plate griddle or skillet, have the heat really low and leave on for a long time so that the plate is really hot, just lightly grease, my Mum always has a rolled cloth in a cup or bowl with some lard or trex type of fat in and just wipes the greasy side across the hotplate. I have used a few spots of oil in a bowl and use paper towel rolled in to form a round mushroom top to dip in, wipe and leave a few seconds before pouring to allow the excess oil to burn off. Once the mix goes in cook until the top dries, when its dry on top the steam will be stopped or nearly stopped from rising or they will be soggy in the middle, too high heat under the plate and they curl up at the edges before they are dry inside. but cook slowly and gently, when the second side is cooked lift flip them on to your hand with the backside down on your palm, that was the side that was cooked first and should be cooler, press gently to see if the inside is cooked, if soft on inside the outer cooked skins will travel slightly like moving the surfaces of a gel pad on a mouse mat then pop it back on the plate for a few minutes, I've found that if you try and spatula press them down when cooking, it never cooks properly but will balloon like a chapatti. Drop the baked oatcakes to cool on a wire rack and the crispy surface will soften. IMPORTANT, give the plate time to get back up to heat before you pour again, a couple of minutes at least. When cooked if you wrap them the backside which cooked first will stick, break up and leave brown bits of oatcake on everything so turn the bottom one of the pile over so that its frontside is down then pile the others as they sit on the cooling rack. Buying oatmeal, if you're really stuck you can buy it direct from Mornflake at Crewe Gresty Road just drive past the Alex and keep going, but Lodeys in the Westlands have it and Tesco sell it at their usual inflated mug you for your last penny prices. Oatcakes cooked like this will taste more like High Lane or Annie's in Fenton than the rubbish that Staffs or Poveys churn out. Good luck be patient, if you get a couple of fails just clean the skillet, heat it up properly and start again.

Alan Steele @ 5:07 pm #

By the way, the old bakeries used to sell the fresh oatcakes out of their front window and last window sales oatcake shop closed last year.

elizabeth harris @ 11:51 pm #

Hi, my Dad was from Stoke on Trent and I was brought up on oatcakes. My Dad made these and there where the best. Now my grandchildren like them and they keep asking me if I will make some – I tell them I am not as good as their great granddad, but one of my grandsons told me practice makes perfect lol. Can't beat the Staffordshire oatcakes.

Angela @ 3:58 am #

I lived in Stoke-on-Trent for a while in early 2000 and discovered Staffordshire oatcakes. Needless to say I never forgot the experience. I will now be cooking up a stack in Australia. Thanks!

Simon @ 8:56 pm #

Hi, my earliest recollection of anything "food" is Saturday tea, the only meal we were allowed to eat in front of the TV. Living in the Potteries as we did, it was bacon cheese and oatcakes more often than not, or so I recall. I generally salivate on hearing the theme to Dr. Who….. I now live in Yorkshire and have converted many a tyke, including my wife and her kids, to oatcakes. Mind you, I had to show my Mrs (a Yorkshire lass) how to make Yorkshire puddings! Love the recipe, have even knocked some up whilst visiting my sister who lives in Frankfurt, she's now using it too.
Thanks!

chris swindells @ 1:17 am #

My family owned a hole in the wall in Newcastle under Lyme for years over 100 ago. Although long gone, the recipe still survives and I cook them regularly. Family, friends and casual acquaintances love them. An earlier comment is correct, all recipes varied. This is very true and having tried several of the bigger brands I have to say were that my family recipe I would recant all knowledge of it. Looking at the recipe on here, it is very close to being perfect, but measurements are a little out and missing some vital ingredients. Our family brand is preparing a launch for the end of the year, I am confident in the produce, but let your taste buds decide for yourselves without any outside convincing. They are being launched in a name after the relative that handed it down to my father and the limited company and URL are being secured as we speak. More to follow, I truly hope you will enjoy.

Helen @ 11:38 pm #

You can use porridge oats and blitz them to a fine oatmeal consistency in a food processor. Plain flour works if you can't find whole wheat flour. Hope that helps.

Peter Preston @ 11:28 am #

I have made oatcakes for years. I taught my grandson how to make them he makes them, now he lives in Australia we were over there last year and had to make some so now he has to make his own.

Claudette @ 11:00 am #

I am so happy to have found this recipe – having lived in Stoke on Trent for a few years from 2000 we grew to love them….will be trying them out tonight all the way in Malawi :)

Leave a Comment

Fields marked by an asterisk (*) are required.